SARUMAN

Publié le par Grimbeorn

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Christopher Lee in the role of Saruman

Ce Maia est l'un des cinq Istari, dépêchés en Terre du Milieu par les Valar vers l'an mille du Troisième Âge; lui-même étant envoyé par le Vala Aulë. Il est alors Saroumane le Blanc, chef des Istari. Il soutient initialement le Conseil Blanc dans ses actions contre Dol Guldur, mais succombe à la tentation de s'approprier l'Anneau Unique à force d'étudier des textes concernant les Anneaux de Pouvoir.

    « C'est le chef de mon ordre et il est à la tête du Conseil. Son savoir est profond, mais son orgueil a crû parallèlement et il prend ombrage de toute ingérence. La tradition des Anneaux elfiques, grands et petits, est son domaine.


Saroumane jalouse Gandalf dès leur départ de Valinor, quand Varda sous-entendit qu'Olórin n'était pas que le troisième en valeur, puis quand il découvrit que Gandalf possédait un des trois anneaux des Elfes, offert par Círdan le Charpentier, à son arrivée sur la Terre du Milieu. Il ravale cependant sa jalousie et œuvra de nombreuses années comme chef du Conseil Blanc, s'installant en Isengard en l'an 2759 du Troisième Âge.

Néanmoins, fasciné par l'étude des Anneaux de Pouvoir, il constitue une proie idéale pour Sauron, qui utilise le palantír de Minas Morgul pour s'en faire un puissant allié. En Isengard, il commence à héberger secrètement des Orques et des Uruk-hai. Il procède à de sinistres croisements entre des humains et Orques pour obtenir des espions plus discrets que les Orques, facilement reconnaissables. Vers l'an 3000, il commence à envoyer des agents dans la Comté, tout d'abord pour acheter de l'herbe à pipe, puis pour recueillir des informations.

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La trahison de Saroumane est révélée lorsqu'il enferme Gandalf au sommet de la tour d'Orthanc, en juillet 3018, espérant arracher à ce dernier des informations cruciales sur la localisation de l'Anneau Unique. Il se qualifie désormais comme étant devenu Saroumane le Multicolore. L'aigle Gwaihir, envoyé par Radagast, permet à Gandalf de s'échapper deux mois plus tard, faisant perdre un atout précieux à Saroumane. N'ayant plus d'autre choix que de trouver lui-même l'Unique ou d'être vaincu, il envoie ses espions au nord, tout en se ralliant les hommes du Pays de Dun.

Saroumane planifie son invasion du Rohan : les deux batailles des gués de l'Isen lui permettent de forcer ce point stratégique, en éliminant en outre Théodred, l'héritier du trône. Mais en négligeant la force constituée par les Ents de Fangorn, il commet une erreur fatale : ses armées sont vaincues au Gouffre de Helm et annihilées par les Huorns, tandis que les Ents marchent sur l'Isengard et rasent ses défenses.

Les vainqueurs rendent visite à Saroumane, encerclé dans sa tour par les Ents. Dans un ultime effort, ce dernier tente de rallier Théoden, puis Éomer et enfin Gandalf à sa cause, mais le mal qu'il a commis est bien trop grand pour être oublié. Toutefois, Gandalf tente de le convaincre de les rejoindre pour à nouveau lutter contre Sauron. Le magicien déchu refuse de se repentir et Gandalf brise son bâton, le radiant de l'ordre des Mages.

Bien après la prise d'Orthanc par Merry, Pippin et les Ents, Saroumane quitte son territoire avec Gríma, ayant peut-être usé de sa voix pour faire fléchir Sylvebarbe. Les Hobbits le retrouvent dans la Comté où il a, par l'intermédiaire de Lothon Sacquet-de-Besace, dirigé le pays sous le nom de Sharcoux. De nouveau face à ses ennemis, il tente d'assassiner Frodon mais échoue. Ce dernier lui laisse la vie sauve à la condition qu'il quitte la Comté, mais il est égorgé par son serviteur, Gríma, brimé une fois de trop.


Le nom de Saroumane (francisation de Saruman) lui fut donné par les hommes du nord de la Terre du Milieu. Il est dérivé du terme vieil anglais searu, qui signifie « talent » ou « ruse ». Son nom sindarin, Curunir, possède le même sens qu'« homme habile », de même que son nom dans la langue de Valinor, Curumo. Enfin, le nom que lui ont donné ses Orques, Sharcoux (Sharkey), est issu du mot sharkû, qui en noir parler signifie « vieil homme ».


Dans la version cinématographique de La Communauté de l'Anneau, Saroumane est interprété par l'acteur anglais Christopher Lee.

Lors de la traversée du col de Caradhras par la Communauté de l'Anneau, Saroumane est à l'origine de l'avalanche qui empêche la Communauté de passer.

Saroumane est complètement absent de la version courte de l'adaptation du Retour du Roi. Dans la version longue, la même compagnie des Deux Tours vient à Orthanc pour quérir des informations. La conversation entre Saroumane et Théoden reste la même, mais Théoden veut toujours persuader Gríma de se libérer de son maître. Saroumane refuse et gifle son serviteur. Alors Gríma le poignarde et Legolas tire une flèche sur Grima qui s'effondre. Le magicien corrompu tombe du haut d'Orthanc et s'écrase sur l'une de ses structures.



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Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy story The Lord of the Rings. He casts himself as a rival of Sauron, the main antagonist of the tale, but is later revealed to have been serving him. Much of the action in the second volume of the book, The Two Towers, is driven by his schemes. In the appendices to the book, he is described as the leader of the Istari, angelic beings sent to Middle-earth in human form by the godlike Valar to challenge Sauron. The meaning of names was important to Tolkien: Saruman means "man of skill".

In the book, Saruman is one of several characters illustrating the corruption of power; his desire for knowledge and order has led to his fall and he rejects the chance of redemption when it is offered. He serves as an example of technology and modernity being overthrown by the forces of nature. The character appears in almost all adaptations of The Lord of the Rings, having a particularly large part in the first two films of Peter Jackson's film trilogy (2001–2003) in which he was played by Christopher Lee.
The Lord of the Rings
"we can keep our thoughts in our hearts, deploring maybe evils done by the way, but approving the high and ultimate purpose: Knowledge, Rule, Order; all the things that we have so far striven in vain to accomplish, hindered rather than helped by our weak or idle friends. There need not be, there would not be, any real change in our designs, only in our means."
—The Fellowship of the Ring, Book II Chapter I pp. 338–339

Saruman first appears in 1954's The Fellowship of the Ring, which is the first volume of The Lord of the Rings. The Lord of the Rings describes a quest to destroy the One Ring, which is a powerful and evil talisman created by the Dark Lord Sauron to control Middle-earth (Tolkien's term for the world in which his story takes place).

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Early in the The Fellowship of the Ring, the wizard Gandalf notes Saruman's great knowledge of the magic rings created by Sauron and by the Elven-smiths and describes him as "the chief of my order". Shortly afterwards, Gandalf breaks an arrangement to meet the hobbit Frodo Baggins, who bears the Ring lost by Sauron thousands of years earlier. After Frodo and Gandalf are reunited at Rivendell midway through The Fellowship of the Ring, the wizard explains why he failed to join Frodo: he had been summoned to consult with Saruman, who proposed that they ally themselves with Sauron, whose victory Saruman believed inevitable. When Gandalf refused, Saruman imprisoned him in the tower of Orthanc at Isengard, hoping to learn from him the location of the Ring. Gandalf observed that Saruman was creating his own army of orcs and wolves, "in rivalry of Sauron, and not in his service yet".

At the start of The Two Towers, the second volume of the story, orcs from Saruman's army in search of the Ring attack Frodo and his companions. Having betrayed Sauron by attempting unsuccessfully to seize the Ring for himself, Saruman's ruin is completed when the Rohirrim defeat his army and the Ents destroy Isengard. Saruman himself is not directly involved, and only appears again in chapter X, The Voice of Saruman, by which time he is trapped in Orthanc. He fails in his attempt to make peace with the Rohirrim and with Gandalf, and rejects Gandalf's conditional offer to let him go free. Gandalf casts him from the White Council and the order of the wizards, and breaks Saruman's staff.

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Uruk of Saruman

Saruman's final appearance is at the end of the last volume, The Return of the King, after Sauron's defeat. He persuades the Ents to release him from Orthanc, and travels on foot as a beggar to the Shire, the Hobbits' homeland. Here, his agents—both Hobbits and Men—have already started a destructive process of modernisation. Saruman governs the Shire in secret under the name of Sharkey until Frodo and his companions return and lead a rebellion, defeating the intruders and exposing Saruman's role. He is set free, even after attempting to kill Frodo, but is murdered by his servant Gríma Wormtongue.


Consistent accounts of Saruman's earlier history appear in Appendix B to the The Lord of the Rings, first published in The Return of the King (1955), and in the posthumously published The Silmarillion (1977) and Unfinished Tales (1980). All were written in the mid-1950s. Saruman, like Gandalf, was one of five 'wizards', known as the Istari, who arrived in Middle-earth 2000 years before the beginning of The Lord of the Rings. They are Maiar, envoys of the godlike Valar sent to challenge Sauron by inspiring the people of Middle-earth rather than by direct conflict. Tolkien regarded them as being somewhat like incarnate angels.
Saruman initially travelled in the east; he was later appointed head of the White Council and eventually settled at Gondor's outpost of Isengard. Fifty years before The Lord of the Rings, after his studies revealed that the One Ring might be found in the river Anduin near Sauron's stronghold at Dol Guldur, he helped the White Council drive out Sauron in order to facilitate his search.

Unfinished Tales also contains various drafts not included in The Lord of the Rings that describe Saruman's attempts to frustrate Sauron's Nazgûl in their search for the Ring during the early part of The Fellowship of the Ring; in one version he considers throwing himself on Gandalf's mercy. There is also a description of how Saruman became involved with the Shire and of how his jealousy of Gandalf grew. Another brief account describes how the five Istari were chosen by the Valar for their mission.


Tolkien started writing The Lord of the Rings in late 1937, but was initially unsure of how the story would develop. Unlike some of the other characters in the book, Saruman had not appeared in Tolkien's 1937 children's tale, The Hobbit, or in his then-unpublished Quenta Silmarillion and related mythology, which date back to 1917.[a] Writing of Gandalf’s failure to meet Frodo, Tolkien later said: "Most disquieting of all, Saruman had never been revealed to me, and I was as concerned as Frodo at Gandalf's failure to appear". Tolkien's son, Christopher, has said that the early stages of the creation of The Lord of the Rings proceeded in a series of waves, and that having produced the first half of The Fellowship of the Ring, Tolkien rewrote the tale from the start three times.Saruman first appeared during a fourth phase of writing in a rough narrative outline dated August 1940. Intended to account for Gandalf's absence, it describes how a wizard titled "Saramond the White" or "Saramund the Grey", who has fallen under the influence of Sauron, lures Gandalf to his stronghold and traps him.The full story of Saruman's betrayal was later added to the existing chapters.

Several of Saruman’s other appearances in the book emerged in the process of writing, rather than being foreseen. Christopher Tolkien believes that the old man seen by Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli at the edge of Fangorn forest is in the original drafts intended to be Gandalf. In the finished version he is Saruman.[17] Similarly, in the first drafts of The Scouring of the Shire, Sharkey is successively a ruffian met by the hobbits and then that man’s unseen boss. It is only in the second draft of the chapter that, as Christopher Tolkien puts it, his father “perceive[d]” that Sharkey was in fact Saruman.

His voice was "low and melodious, its very sound an enchantment […] it was a delight to hear the voice speaking, all that it said seemed wise and reasonable, and desire woke in them by swift agreement to seem wise themselves … for those whom it conquered the spell endured while they were far away and ever they heard that soft voice whispering and urging them."
—The Two Towers Book III Chapter X p.222

Tolkien described Saruman at the time of The Lord of the Rings as having a long face and a high forehead, "…he had deep darkling eyes … His hair and beard were white, but strands of black still showed around his lips and ears." His hair is elsewhere described as having been black when he first arrived in Middle-earth. He is referred to as 'Saruman the White' and is said to have originally worn white robes, but on his first entry in The Fellowship of the Ring they instead appear to be "woven from all colours [, they] shimmered and changed hue so that the eye was bewildered" and he names himself 'Saruman of Many Colours'.

The power of Saruman's voice is noted throughout the book. Jonathan Evans calls the characterization of Saruman in the chapter The Voice of Saruman a "tour de force". Roger Sale says of the same chapter that "Tolkien valiantly tried to do something worth doing which he simply cannot bring off." Tom Shippey writes that "Saruman talks like a politician … No other character in Middle-earth has Saruman's trick of balancing phrases against each other so that incompatibles are resolved, and none comes out with words as empty as 'deploring', 'ultimate', worst of all, 'real'. What is 'real change'?" Shippey contrasts this modern speech pattern with the archaic stoicism and directness that Tolkien employs for other characters such as the Dwarven King Dain, which Shippey believes represent Tolkien's view of heroism in the mould of Beowulf.

After the defeat of his armies, having been caught in the betrayal of Sauron, Saruman is offered refuge by Gandalf, in return for his aid, but having chosen his path, is unable to choose to turn from it. Evans has compared the character of Saruman to that of Satan in John Milton's Paradise Lost in his use of rhetoric and in this final refusal of redemption, "conquered by pride and hatred.

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